Roads

CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEM

Roads

Central Heating System

A few well chosen accessories can make all the difference.Winters would be all but unbearable for many of us if we did not have our hard-working boilers and radiators. Would you imagine central heating was already used by the Romans over 2,000 years ago ? The Roman central heating surely worked differently, but the result was the same. A ground level furnace was used to create hot air which circulated beneath a thin floor raised up on pillars of tiles, it was underfloor heating!

Roads

Roads - Circa 500 BC


The old proverb “all roads are leading to Rome” stems from the fact that they originally sort of did, or rather they came from Rome. In Great Britain, there were no road prior to the Roman invasion who created a network of straight, solid highways built on foundations of clay, chalk and gravel with larger flat stones laid on top. Original Roman roads are still intact all around the Mediterranean Basin, and some are still being used.

Expresso Machine

AQUEDUCT

Expresso Machine

Aqueduct - 312 BC

Romans enjoyed public toilets, underground sewage systems, fountains and public baths. None of these innovations would have been possible without the aqueducts. First developed around 312 B.C., these engineering marvels used gravity to transport water along stone lead and concrete pipelines from rivers into city centers. Hundreds of aqueducts eventually sprang up throughout the empire, some of which transported water as far as 60 miles away from the collecting source.

Expresso Machine

Expresso Machine - 1884

Angelo Moriondo presented the first espresso machine, that he build and patented, at the Turin Exhibition in 1884. He was granted a patent in May 1884. His espresso machine was then called «new steam machinery for the economic and instantaneous confection of coffee beverage». While Espresso can now be found around the world, we have no doubt the best ones are still being served in Italy and particularly in Rome.

Triumphal ARC

THE EYES GLASSES

Triumphal ARC

The Eye Glasses - 1280

Salvino D'Armato degli Armati, a native from Florence, is credited as being the inventor of the eyeglass even if it is said that it is actually Salvino D’Armati’s father, Armato who invented it. Either way, the invention now offers corrective benefits to millions of people all over the world. Today, the global leader in eyeglasses is Luxottica, an Italian company that manufactures, among other brands Ray-Ban, Persol, Oackley, Chanel, Ralph Lauren….

Triumphal ARC

Triumphal Arc - 200 BC

Triumphal arches are one of the most influential and distinctive types of architecture associated with ancient Rome. Thought to have been invented by the Romans, the triumphal arch was used to commemorate victories, the death of a member of the imperial family or the accession of a new emperor. Triumphal Arches can be found around the world from Paris to Moscow, Munich, Bucharest, Mexico, London, New York….

THE JEANS

The COMbustion ENGINE

THE JEANS

Late 1851 or early 1852 Eugenio Barsanti, a mathematician and Felice Matteucci, an engineer and mechanic and hydraulics expert partenered on a project to exploit the explosion and expansion of a gaseous mix of hydrogen and atmospheric air to transform part of the energy of such explosions into mechanical energy.

THE JEANS

The Jeans - Circa Late 1600's

The jean fabric was invented in the city of Genoa, Italy and soon appeared in Nimes, France. Gênes, the French word for Genoa, became "jeans". In Nimes, weavers tried to reproduce jean but instead developed a similar twill fabric that became known as denim, from de Nimes, meaning "from Nimes".

Corpus Juris Civilis

CONCRETE

Corpus Juris Civilis
Corpus Juris Civilis

The LATIN ALPHABET

THE ANEMOMETER

The LATIN ALPHABET
The LATIN ALPHABET

THE CARBURETOR

THE HELICOPTER

THE CARBURETOR
THE CARBURETOR

TOILETS

MOPEDS

TOILETS
TOILETS

THE BANKING SYSTEM

THE CARDAN SHAFT

THE BANKING SYSTEM
THE BANKING SYSTEM

THE PIZZERIA

Milestones

THE PIZZERIA
THE PIZZERIA

THE PIANO

THE GALLEONS

THE PIANO
THE PIANO

THE MP3

THE DESKTOP COMPUTER

THE MP3
THE MP3

THE BAROMETER

Bound BOOKS

THE BAROMETER
THE BAROMETER

A tribute to Italy

 

Great Italian Inventions

 

Countless studies of ancient times reveal

an incredible number of technological

achievements developed centuries and

even milleniums ago that are still used in our

everyday’s life.

One civilisation which contributed more

than it’s fair share of innovations was that of

Ancient Romans. You may not realize it but

many of the things we all take for granted

in everyday’s life have their roots in Rome.

Here are just a few examples.

 

Roads - Circa 500 BC

The old proverb “all roads are leading to Rome” stems

from the fact that they originally sort of did, or rather

they came from Rome.

In Great Britain, there were no road prior to the Roman invasion who created a network of straight, solid

highways built on foundations of clay, chalk and gravel

with larger flat stones laid on top. Original Roman roads

are still intact all around the Mediterranean Basin, and

some are still being used.

 

Aqueducts - 312 BC

Romans enjoyed public toilets, underground sewage systems, fountains and

public baths. None of these innovations

would have been possible without the

aqueducts. First developed around 312

B.C., these engineering marvels used

gravity to transport water along stone

lead and concrete pipelines from rivers

into city centers. Hundreds of aqueducts eventually sprang up throughout

the empire, some of which transported

water as far as 60 miles away from the

collecting source.

 

Central Heating System - Circa 15 BC

Winters would be all but unbearable for many of us if we did not have our hard-working boilers and radiators. Would you imagine central heating was already used

by the Romans over 2,000 years ago ? The Roman central heating surely worked

differently, but the result was the same. A ground level furnace was used to create

hot air which circulated beneath a thin floor raised up on pillars of tiles, it was

underfloor heating!

 

Espresso Machine

1884

Angelo Moriondo presented

the first espresso machine, that

he build and patented, at the

Turin Exhibition in 1884. He was

granted a patent in May 1884.

His espresso machine was then

called «new steam machinery

for the economic and

instantaneous confection

of coffee beverage». While

Espresso can now be found

around the world, we have

no doubt the best ones are

still being served in Italy and

particularly in Rome.

 

Triumphal Arch

Circa 200 BC

Triumphal arches are one of the most

influential and distinctive types of

architecture associated with ancient

Rome. Thought to have been

invented by the Romans, the

triumphal arch was used to commemorate victories, the death of a

member of the imperial family or the

accession of a new emperor.

Triumphal Arches can be found

around the world from Paris to

Moscow, Munich, Bucharest, Mexico,

London, New York….

 

The Eye Glasses - 1280

Salvino D'Armato degli Armati, a native from Florence, is credited as

being the inventor of the eyeglass even if it is said that it is actually

Salvino D’Armati’s father, Armato who invented it. Either way, the

invention now offers corrective benefits to millions of people all over

the world. Today, the global leader in eyeglasses is Luxottica, an

Italian company that manufactures, among other brands Ray-Ban,

Persol, Oackley, Chanel, Ralph Lauren….

 

The Combustion Engine

1851/1852

Late 1851 or early 1852 Eugenio Barsanti, a

mathematician and Felice Matteucci, an

engineer and mechanic and hydraulics

expert partenered on a project to exploit the

explosion and expansion of a gaseous mix of

hydrogen and atmospheric air to transform

part of the energy of such explosions into

mechanical energy.

 

The Shopping Mall - Circa 100/110 BC

Believe it or not, the concept of the world’s first Shopping Center is not American! It appeared in ancient

Rome. The earliest example of public shopping mall was the Trajan's Market built by Apollodorus of Damascus. This semi-circular building can still be visited today and visitors can clearly see the line up of shops in this

multiple story building located in the center of Rome .

 

The Anemometer - 1450

The Anemometer was developed by Leon Battista Alberti in

  1. The anemometer has changed little since its

development in the 15th century. The same invention is still

being used today in the maritime, weather forecast and

aviation worlds to measure the strength of the wind, even if it

is not much of a concern when onboard a Canados !

 

Concrete - Circa 25 BC

Opus caementicium (Roman

concrete) was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice. Its widespread

use in many Roman structures

was a key part of what is now

known as the Roman Architectural Revolution. One of the most

impressive applications was the

construction of the 4535 metric

ton, 6.4 metre thick dome at the

Pantheon in Rome, which can

still be visited. The recent descoveries in Cesaera, Israel, of a

Roman port proved that the

Romans where also mastering

Hydraulic Concrete.

 

Corpus Juris Civilis

450 BC

Subpoena, habeas corpus, pro

bono, affidavit - all these terms

derive from the Roman legal

system, which dominated

Western law and government

for centuries. The basis for early

Roman law came from a code

that formed an essential part

of the constitution during the

Republican era. First adopted

around 450 B.C, Roman law

remains hugely influential and

is still reflected in the civil laws

of several world's nations.

 

The Jeans - Circa Late 1600’s

The jean fabric was invented in the city of Genoa,

Italy and soon appeared in Nimes, France. Gênes,

the French word for Genoa, became "jeans". In

Nimes, weavers tried to reproduce jean but instead

developed a similar twill fabric that became known

as denim, from de Nimes, meaning "from Nimes".

 

The Latin Alphabet - Circa 700 BC

The Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is an evolution from

the visually similar version of the Greek Alphabet. The Etruscans adopted and

modified the Cumaean Greek alphabet. The Etruscan alphabet was adopted

and modified by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language becoming the

foundation of many languages worldwide.

 

The Helicopter - 1930

Even if the original vision of the helicopter is to

be credited to Leonardo da Vinci’s 15th Century

Aerial Screw, and despite claims from Russians and

Americans, they did not invent this flying machine.

It is Corradino D’Ascanio’s bladed rotating flying

machine called the D’AT3 that set the standard

for helicopters to come. He also created the first

moped engine for Ferdinando Innocenti, and

then went on to help Enrico Piaggio produce the

original Vespa in 1946.

 

The Carburetor - 1876

The carburetor was invented by Luigi De Cristoforis, in

  1. The first carburetor was then developed by

annother Italian, Enrico Bernardi at the University of

Padova in 1882, for his Motrice Pia, the first petrol

combustion one cylinder engine. Carburators are still

being used in lots of 2 and 4 strokes engines

your tender is powered with…

 

Toilets - Circa 200 BC

In Rome, street corners were equipped with large pots for people

to urinate into so that the liquid could be collected. In some

multi-story buildings, which we still call condominium, a system of

pipes was channelled down to ground level where excrements

were collected to be used as fertiliser. Ancient Roman public

bathrooms consisted of long stone benches with holes every few

feet for people to seat. Beneath the toilets flowed water flushing

away the waste into a sewage system called the Cloaca Maxima. Some part of the antique Roman sewage system is still being

used today in some areas of the city.

 

The Moped - 1946

It is in 1946 that the central office for inventions, models and makes of the

Ministry of Industry and Commerce in Florence, delivered Piaggio with a

patent for a "motorcycle of a rational complexity of organs and elements

combined with a frame with mudguards and a casing covering the whole

mechanical part". This design became the Vespa, one of the most popular

moped ever.

 

The Banking System - 1149

The banking system and organization we are using today was

created with the Bank of San Giorgio opened for business in

Genoa, Italy, in 1149. Genova was at that time one of the world’s

wealthiest city due to its intense maritime trade developments.

The world’s oldest bank still in activity is also Italian. It is the Monte

Paschi di Siena that was founded in 1472 in Siena, Toscana.

 

The Cardan Shaft - Circa 1560

Gerolamo Cardano was considered the greatest mathematician of

the Renaissance. He was one of the key figures in the foundation of

probability and invented several devices including the combination

lock, the gimbal and the Cardan shaft, which is still used today in

the engine room of your yacht...

 

Milestones - Circa 300 BC

Milestones were originally made from granite, marble, or

whatever local stone was available. They were widely

used by Roman Empire road builders. The first Roman

milestones appeared on the Appian way. At the centre

of Rome, the «Golden Milestone» was erected to mark

the presumed centre of the empire. Romans came up

with this invention to measure the distances of the roads.

The Golden Milestone inspired the « Zero Milestone » in

Washington, D.C., intended as the point from which all

road distances in the United States should be reckoned.

 

The Pizzeria – 1738

Established in 1738 as a stand for peddlers, Antica Pizzeria

in Naples is considered the world’s first pizzeria when it was

opened as a restaurant in 1830. They would make pizza

in wood-fire ovens and bring it onto the street. The pizzas

were generally simple, with toppings such as oil and garlic.

 

The Piano - 1698

Bartolomeo Cristofori invented the

modern piano. He was employed by

Ferdinando de Medici, Grand Prince of

Tuscany, as the Keeper of the Instruments. He was an expert harpsichord

maker, and was well acquainted with

the body of knowledge on stringed

keyboard instruments.

 

The Galleons - Circa 1500

Originally, this new type of sailing ship were built a the begining

of the 16th century. It was called Gallioni and used to protect

Venice against pirates. By the second half of the century,

Galleons were already seen around the Mediterranean. Their

architecture gave them an unprecedented level of stability in

the water, making them faster and more maneuverable.

 

The Desktop Computer - 1964

It is good to remind neither IBM nor

Apple invented the desktop computer. It was invented by Pier Giorgio

Perroto and produced by Italian manufacturer Olivetti. The Programma

101 was the first commercial «desktop

computer» and was presented to the

public at the 1964 New York World's Fair

while production started in 1965. The

Programma 101 was priced at $3,200.

About 44,000 units were sold, primarily

in the US.

 

The mp3/mpeg - 1988

Leonardo Chiariglione and his team at

the Moving Picture Expert Group is the

inventor of the MP3 format. Originally

called MPEG and later known as MP3,

both of which are things we couldn’t

have DVD and satellite television without.

The Barometer - 1643

Evangelista Torricelli is credited with inventing the barometer in 1643,

but historical documentation also suggests Gasparo Berti, an Italian

mathematician and astronomer, unintentionally build a water barometer sometime between 1640 and 1643. This invention was, and still

is widely used in the maritime world.

 

Bound Books - Circa 50 BC

For most of human history, literature took the form of unwieldy clay tablets and scrolls.

The Romans streamlined the medium by creating the codex, a stack of bound pages

that is recognized as the earliest incarnation of the book. The first codices were made

of bound wax tablets, but these were later replaced by animal skin parchment that

more clearly resembled pages..

 

The Radio - 1895

Even if James Clerk Maxwell showed mathematically

that electromagnetic waves could propagate through

free space and the effects of electromagnetic waves

were observed before and after Maxwell's work by

many inventors, it is Guglielmo Marconi, who in late

1894 began pursuing the idea of building a wireless

telegraphy system based on Hertzian waves. Marconi

gained a patent on the system in 1896 and developed

it into a commercial communication system.

 

  • Typewriter - 1575

In 1575 printmaker, Francesco Rampazzetto, invented the «scrittura tattile»,

a machine to impress letters on papers.

In 1802 Italian Agostino Fantoni developed a particular typewriter to enable

his blind sister to write while it is in 1808

that the typewriter as we were to know

it was invented by Pellegrino Turri.

  • The Calendar – 46 BC

Without the Romans we would not even

know today’s date...or, maybe we

would but it would be called something

different. The Julian calendar, introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC splited

the year for the first time into 365 days,

divided into 12 months, with a leap day

added to February every four years.

As at Canados, sticking to our contractual delivery dates is a prinicple, we

know exactly the number of days in a

month….

  • Electrochemical Battery - 1800

Alessandro Volta build and described

the first electrochemical battery, also

known as the Voltaic pile, in 1800. It was

made of a stack of copper and zinc

plates, separated by brine-soaked paper disks, that could produce a steady

current for a considerable length of

time.

  • The Carbon Paper - 1801

It might sound like a strange thing to

the young generations, but this invention has been used worldwide for almost two centuries. In 1801 Pellegrino

Turri invented the carbon paper to provide the ink for his mechanical typing

machine, one of the first typewriters.

 

  • The Jacuzzi - 1963

An Italian immigrant to the United States

of America, Enzo Jacuzzi, invented the

Jacuzzi whirlpool bath for his 15-month-old son who was born with rheumatoid arthritis. He developed a pump that

enabled a whirlpool to be created in a

bath as a hydrotherapeutic device for

pain relief.

The jacuzzi we will install on your boat

did not change much in its conception

since then.

  • The University - 1088

Almost 1000 years old, the University of

Bologna is the world’s oldest university

in the world. It is still open to these days

and has been continuously since 1088.

The university was made famous for its

teaching of canon and civil law, and later became central in the development

of medieval Roman law.

  • The Newspaper - 1556

It is in Venice that the government

realised there was a need for accessible information that could be rotated

around towns, cities and further afield.

Thus, it started to put together a monthly publication called the Notizie Scritte,

a handwritten newsletter that reported

political, military and economic news.

  • The Casino - 1638

The first known gambling house, later

called casino, that was comparable

business as we know it today was the Ridotto, established in Venice, in 1638 by

the Great Council of Venice to control

gambling during the carnival. It was

closed in 1770 as the city felt it was impoverishing the population.

 

  • Eau De Cologne - 1708

The first Eau de Cologne was a spirit-citrus perfume launched in Cologne in

1709 by Giovanni Maria Farina, an Italian perfume maker from Santa Maria

Maggiore Valle Vigezzo.

He wanted to invent a fragrance that

reminded him of an «Italian spring morning after the rain». He named his fragrance Eau de Cologne, in honour of

his new hometown.

  • The Denture - Circa 700 BC

It as early as the 7th century BC, that

traces of the first denture were discovered. The Etruscans, the inhabitants of a

region now called Toscany, made partial dentures out of human or other animal teeth and bones fastened together

with gold bands.

  • The Opera - 1597

Rome born Jacopo Peri was a composer and singer whose carrier span

between the Renaissance and Baroque epoca, and is the inventor of the

Opera.

He wrote the first opera, Dafne in 1597,

and also Euridice in 1600 that is still

played nowadays.

The Paddle Boat - Circa 1490

Centuries before Mark Twain wrote

about paddleboats on the Mississippi

River, Leonardo Da Vinci applied his

knowledge of mechanical engineering

to build a craft that was fast and easy

to navigate.

In this design, sailors worked the pedals

to turn rotating paddles and move the

boat rapidly over the water.

 

Electroplating, a manufacturing technique invented by Luigi Brugnatelli in 1805. Liposuction, medical procedure invented by Dr

Giorgio Fischer in 1974. Medical Thermometer, invented by Sanctorius in the early 1600s Epidemiology, a discipline invented by Girolamo Fracastoro in the mid 16th C. Montessori education developed by Maria Montessori in 1907. Nitroglycerin, first synthesized

by Ascanio Sobrero in 1847 Parachute, Leonardo da Vinci - 1485 Polypropylene was discovered by Giulio Natta and began to be

manufactured in 1957. Perspective Linear was first invented by Renaissance architect Filippo Brunelleschi, in Florence. Science academy, first scientific society was founded in Naples in 1560 by Giambattista della Porta. Quick release skewer attaching a wheel

to a bicycle was invented by Tullio Campagnolo in 1927. Stem cells as vectors for Gene Therapy. In 1992 Doctor Claudio Bordignon

performed the first procedure of gene therapy. Tontine a form of life insurance developed by Lorenzo De Tonti in 1653. Watermark.

This medieval innovation was first introduced in Fabriano, Italy, in 1282. Welfare. The earliest form of welfare, the lex frumentaria instituted dates back to 122 B.C., a law that ordered Rome’s government to supply its citizens with allotments of cheaply priced grain.

 

Some Great Italian People

Italy and Rome in particular were the birth

place of some of the world's most famous

people. Some of them shaped the world

while some other defined theories or inventions that we are still using.

 

Leonardo da Vinci

Born on April 15, 1452, in Vinci,

Italy, Leonardo da Vinci was

the epitome of a “Renaissance

man.” Possessor of a curious

mind and keen intellect, da

Vinci studied the laws of

science and nature, which

greatly influenced his work as

a painter, sculptor, architect,

inventor, military engineer

and draftsman. His ideas and

body of work - which includes

"Virgin of the Rocks," "The Last

Supper" and "Mona Lisa" - have

influenced countless artists

and made da Vinci the

greatest inventor and

visionary of all times.

 

Julius Caesar

He was a remarquable politician and general.

He was instrumental provoking a series of events

that led to transform the Roman Republic into the

Roman Empire.

In 60 BC, he led a political alliance that dominated

the public life for several years. Caesar’s victories

in the Gallic War completed by 51 BC, extended

Rome's territory as far as England and Germany.

In 49 BC he illegally entered Roman Italy under

arms and Caesar’s victory in the civil war he

ignited put him in an unrivaled position of power

and influence.

After assuming control, he began a program of

social and governmental reforms, including the

creation of the Julian calendar.

In 44 BC, he was killed by a group of rebellious

senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus.

 

Galileo

Born February 15, 1564, in Pisa, Gelileo Galilei was

a mathematics professor who made pioneering

observations of nature with long-lasting

implications for the study of physics. He also

constructed a telescope and supported the

Copernican theory, which supports a

sun-centered solar system. Galileo was accused

twice of heresy by the church for his beliefs,

and wrote books on his ideas.

He died in Arcetri, Italy, on January 8, 1642.

 

Christopher Columbus

Explorer and navigator Christopher Columbus was born in

1451 in the Republic of Genoa, Italy. His first voyage into the

Atlantic Ocean in 1476 nearly cost him his life. Columbus

participated in several other expeditions to Africa. In 1492,

Columbus left Spain in the Santa Maria, with the Pinta and

the Niña along side. He has been credited for opening up

the Americas to European colonization.

 

Guglielmo Marconi

Born in 1874, Guglielmo Marconi was a Nobel Prize-winning

physicist and inventor credited with the groundbreaking work

necessary for all future radio technology. Through his

experiments in wireless telegraphy, Marconi developed the

first effective system of radio communication. In 1899, he

founded the Marconi Telegraph Company. In 1901, he

successfully sent wireless signals across the Atlantic.

Marconi shared with Karl Braun the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics.

He died in Rome in 1937.

 

Monica Bellucci

Born September 30, 1964, in Città di Castello, Monica Bellucci

started modeling as a teenager. She soon moved on to acting,

appearing in big-screen projects like Bram Stoker’s Dracula

(1992). Bellucci continued to demonstrate her talents with

acclaimed roles in such films as L'Appartmente (1996) and

Malèna (2000). In 2003, she appeared in the

sci-fi hits Matrix. Bellucci has continued to land

interesting roles, including James Bond movie Spectre.

 

Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Verdi was born in Italy in 1813, prior to Italian

unification. Verdi produced many successful operas,

including La Traviata, Falstaff and Aida, and became known

for his skill in creating melodies and his profound use of

theatrical effect. Additionally, his rejection of the traditional

Italian opera for integrated scenes and unified acts earned

him fame. Verdi died on January 27, 1901, in Milan, Italy.

 

Marco Polo

Marco Polo was born in 1254, in Venice, Italy. He traveled

extensively with his family, journeying from Europe to Asia

from 1271 to 1295. He remained in China for 17 of those years.

Around 1292, he left China, acting as consort along the way to

a Mongol princess who was being sent to Persia. His book

"Il Milione" describes his travels and experiences and

influenced later adventurers and merchants.

 

Amerigo Vespucci

Explorer Amerigo Vespucci was born

March 9, 1451, (some scholars say

1454) in Florence. On May 10, 1497,

he embarked on his first voyage.

On his third and most successful

voyage, he discovered present-day

Rio de Janeiro and Rio de la Plata.

Believing he had discovered a new

continent, he called South America

the New World. In 1507, America

was named after him.

He died of malaria in Seville,

Spain, on February 22, 1512.

 

Michelangelo

Michelangelo was born March 6, 1475, in Caprese. Born to

a family of moderate means in the banking business,

Michelangelo became an apprentice to a painter before

studying sculpture. What followed was a remarkable career

as an artist in the Italian Renaissance, recognized in his own

time for his artistic virtuosity. His works include the "David" and

"Pieta" statues and the ceiling paintings of Rome's Sistine

Chapel. Michelangelo lived most of his life in Rome, where

he died in 1564, at age 88.

 

Antonio Vivaldi

Born on March 4, 1678, in Venice, Italy, Antonio Vivaldi was ordained

as a priest though he instead chose to follow his passion for music.

A prolific composer who created hundreds of works, he became

renowned for his concertos in Baroque style, becoming a highly

influential innovator in form and pattern. He was also known for his

operas, including Argippo and Bajazet. He died on July 28, 1741.

 

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius was born on April 26, 121 and was chosen by

Emporer Hadrian to be his eventual successor. In 161, Aurelius took

control of the Roman Empire along with his brother Verus. War and

disease threatened Rome on all sides. Aurelius held his territory,

but was weakened as a ruler after the death of his brother Verus.

His son Commodus later became co-ruler in 177, only three years

before Aurelius died on March 17, 180.

 

Maria Montessori

Maria Montessori was born on August 31, 1870, in Chiaravalle,

Italy. In 1907 she was placed in charge of the Casa dei Bambini

school. By 1925, more than 1,000 Montessori schools had

opened in the United States. By 1940 the Montessori movement

had faded, but it was revived in the 1960s. During World War II,

Montessori developed Education for Peace in India,

and earned two Nobel Peace Prize nominations.

She died May 6, 1952, in Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands.

 

Giorgio Armani

Born on July 11, 1934, in Piacenza, Italy, Giorgio Armani is an iconic clothing designer

who has expanded his empire to include restaurants and hotels. His popularity skyrocketed in America in the 1980s when his men's “power suits” appeared frequently

on the television series Miami Vice and in the 1980 film American Gigolo, which starred

Richard Gere in Armani's signature suit.

 

Luciano Pavarotti

Born on October 12, 1935, on the outskirts of Modena, tenor Luciano Pavarotti made

his debut at the Teatro Reggio Emilia in 1961, performing as "Rodolfo" in La Boheme.

He then made his international debut at the Royal Opera House in London in 1963.

Pavarotti went on to become a hugely popular and internationally known opera star,

achieving a large following due to his recordings and television appearances, and

ultimately helping expand the popularity of opera worldwide. He passed away in Modena in 2007, at the age of 71.

 

Sophia Loren

Italian actress Sophia Loren was born in Rome September 20, 1934. Raised in poverty,

she began her film career in 1951 and came to be regarded as one of the worlds

most beautiful women.

Loren won the Best Actress Academy Award for the film Two Women in 1961 and an

Academy Honorary Award in 1991. Married to producer Carlo Ponti for 50 years until

his death in 2007, Loren lives in Geneva, Switzerland.

 

Giovanni da Verrazzano

Giovanni da Verrazzano was born around 1485 near Florence. Around 1507, he began

pursuing a maritime career, and in the 1520s, he was sent by King Francis I of France to

explore the East Coast of North America to open a route to the Pacific. He made landfall near what would be Cape Fear, North Carolina. Verrazzano eventually discovered

New York Harbor, which now has a bridge named after the explorer. After returning

to Europe, Verrazzano made two more voyages to the Americas. On the second, in

1528, he was killed and eaten by the natives of one of the Lower Antilles, probably in

Guadeloupe.

 

Enzo Ferrari

Enzo Ferrari was born February 18, 1898 in Modena, Italy. At the age of 10 he witnessed

Felice Nazzaro's win at the circuit of Bologna in 1908, an event that was to inspire him

to become a race car driver. Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and

started as test-driver for C.M.N. (Costruzioni Meccaniche Nazionali), a Milan-based

car-maker. He was later promoted race car driver and made his competitive debut

in the 1919. In 1920 Ferrari left C.M.N. to race for Alfa Romeo. In 1924 Ferrari won the

Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a

chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari continued racing until

1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari.

 

Style, design, luxury and technologies,

Italian companies you know.

 

AgustaWestland helicopters • Piaggio Aerospace • Armani, Berluti • Borsalino •

Bottega Veneta • Brioni • Bulgari • Canali • Roberto Cavalli • Dolce & Gabbana

  • Etro • Fendi • Salvatore Ferragamo • Frette • Gucci • Kiton • La Perla • Loro Piana
  • Max Mara • Moschino • Cesare Paciotti • Panerai • Prada • Sergio Rossi • Tod's •

Trussardi • Valentino • Ermenegildo Zegna • Bertone • Ferrari • Lamborghini •

Maserati • Pagani • Pininfarina • Zagato • Bertone • Giugiaro • Scaglietti •

Alcantara • Alessio • Brembo • Momo • Omp • OZ • Pirelli • Sparco • Alessi • Illy •

Lavazza • Segafredo • Cerruti 1881 • Roberto Coin • Corneliani • Gianfranco Ferré

  • Alberta Ferretti • Moschino • Prada • Nina Ricci • Trussardi • Valentino • Beretta
  • Gianni Versace • Ermenegildo Zegna • STMicroelectronics • Campari • Ferrero •

San Pellegrino • Segafredo • Iso Rivolta • Costa Crociere • Aprilia • Ducati • Vespa •

Moto Guzzi • MV Agusta • Bulgari • Damiani • Persol • Zanussi • Technogym • Alessi

  • Artemide • B&B Italia • Cassina • Jacuzzi • Boffi… Canados •